Radiological Protection of People and the Environment in the Event of a Large Nuclear Accident

Draft document: Radiological Protection of People and the Environment in the Event of a Large Nuclear Accident
Submitted by AKIKO MORIMATSU, Thanks & Dream: Association of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Evacuees
Commenting as an individual

1. I would like to express my personal gratitude for the worldwide support given to us on this occasion. East Japan suffered catastrophic damage by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by Tokyo Electric Company on March 11, 2011. Immediately after the disasters occurred, people all over the world sent kind messages as well as necessary commodities for survival, thus helping us both mentally and materially.  I thank you all sincerely for the kindness.

2. However, the Japanese government has never been able to put the nuclear power plants under control since the 3.11 accident. The plants have contaminated the ocean, the air, and lands which are, without boundaries, connected throughout the world. The TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has never been put under control and I personally think we must apologize for this fact to the people of the world.  The contaminated water has kept leaking and polluting the ocean for eight years and no Japanese citizens think Fukushima is under control. It is a shame that we have not apologized to the world for the fact. I, therefore, would like to apologize personally now to all the people in the world on this occasion. I am very sorry that Japan has kept contaminating the beautiful earth.

3. Now in Japan, many people have evacuated from the contaminated areas to avoid radiation exposure. The number of registered evacuees in June 2012 reached 347,000 according to the government's Reconstruction Agency.   Even after 8 and a half years have passed (August 30, 2019), there are as many as about 50,000 evacuees that have officially been recognized. who know only. However, nobody knows the actual number of evacuees, let alone the Japanese government.   Moreover, many people have stayed in the contaminated areas due to the lack of the government's financial support. Most evacuees are families with little children who are vulnerable to radiation. My own case is one of them. Our two children were a three-year-old infant and a five-month-old baby at the time of the disaster. Since the nuclear accident, my husband who is the father of the children, has stayed in Fukushima but our children and I fled to Osaka. We are dislocated and forced to live in two separate locations. Such dislocation to protect children is called, boshi hinan, or "mother and child(ren) evacuees" and there are still many of us.

4. We need to protect ourselves from the radiation contamination which has leaked from TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Evacuation is a natural human act to flee from radiation and to enjoy healthy living. I regard the nuclear evacuees like ourselves as people of "Internal Displacement" referred to in the Guiding Principle on Internal Displacement in the 1998 UN Human Right Commission Report. The second article of the above principle states: "Certain internally displaced persons, such as children, especially unaccompanied minors, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, female heads of household, persons with disabilities and elderly persons, shall be entitled to protection and assistance required by their condition and to treatment which takes into account their special needs." The Japanese government, however, has not put this principle into action nor its policies for the internally displaced people due to the nuclear accidents. The Japanese government has not learned the lessons of the social protection of victims from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

5. Moreover, the Japanese government has objected and rejected the UN Special Rapporteur Anand Grover's advice given in 2013.

6. In other words, rights pertaining to human life and health have been continuously violated by the Japanese government since 3.11. Human beings have had the historical experience of the nuclear accident in Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union and have had many witnesses from Chernobyl mothers.  The Japanese government, however, has not learned the lessons from "the social protection of victims" in the Chernobyl nuclear accident. By the government ignoring the lessons, many people in Fukushima and other contaminated areas in Japan are still forced to have unnecessary radiation exposure today.   If ICRP further relaxes radiation protection standards and no longer specifies the annual exposure limit of 1 mSv, it will lose the its authority and people’s trust of ICRP as an exposure protection agency.   On the contrary, ICRP, which is supposed to advocate exposure protection, rather commits a crime of human rights violations that force people to be exposed.

7. I would like to protect life, health, and the future of the children living in Japan. Without evacuating from nuclear contaminated areas or ensured regular recuperation opportunities, we cannot follow the 24th article of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, which Japan has ratified, ensuring "the right to enjoy the highest level of health reachable."  We need help from the world community.   The ICRP should indicate strict standards to protect children who are especially vulnerable to exposure.   Please present strict standards to protect children and women who are more vulnerable to exposure radiation, rather than considering social circumstances and economic burdens that are not related to exposure protection.

8. The Preamble of the Japanese Constitution declares "the right to live free from fear and deprivation and to live in peace" (the right to a peaceful life).

9. The right to live free from the fear of radiation exposure and to live in peace should be given equally to all people. We cannot make any more "hibakushas" if we have learned the lessons from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Fukushima.

10. To be free from radiation exposure and to enjoy health is a basic human reaction to protect life. It is a human right directly concerning to human life and health. It is the most important and universal human right. Can you think of anything else which is more precious than human life?   ICRP will  increase people's exposure to unnecessary exposure by relaxing exposure protection standards.   The revised ICRP is nothing less than an evil that forces people to be exposed to unnecessary exposure.

11. We need help from the world community to help all the victims and evacuees of nuclear accident disasters. Please take action and tell the Japanese government to act in compliance with international laws, and respect the guiding principles and recommendations of the United Nations.   Please help us protect the people, especially the children, in Fukushima and East Japan from radiation exposure.


1.全世界の皆様のご支援に、この場をお借りして、感謝を申し上げます。 2011年3月11日に東日本大震災およびそれに伴う東京電力福島第一原子力発電所の事故により東日本は壊滅的なダメージを受けました。発災直後から全世界の人々が私たち日本にいる人々の無事を祈り、必要な支援の手を差し伸べて下さり、物心両面でお支え下さいました事を、心から御礼申し上げます。本当にありがとうございました。


3.多くの日本に住む人々が汚染地から放射線を避けて避難を続けている現状があります。政府(復興庁)に登録した避難者は2012年6月に約347,000人に達しました。8年半が経過した現在でも(2019年8月30日)、わかっているだけでも避難者は約5万人います。しかし実際の避難者数は日本政府はもちろん、誰も把握していません。   また,避難を希望していても政府からの支援がないため,避難できない人々が多数存在しています。 特に放射線に対して脆弱な子供を守るための避難者があり、私たちもその中の1家族です。私には2人の子どもがいます。震災当時、ゼロ歳(5ヶ月)の赤ん坊と3歳の幼児でした。この年間、私の夫(子どもたちの父親)は福島に、私と子どもたちは大阪に、2カ所に離ればなれに住んでいます。このように子どもを守る為の母子だけの避難者が現在も多数存在します。日本では「母子避難」と呼ばれています。

4.私たちは東電福島第一原子力発電所から漏れ出た放射能汚染から身を守る必要があります。そして、「避難すること」は被曝から免れ健康を享受するための人として当然の命を守る為の行為です。 私たちのような人々は、国連の 「国内強制移動に関する指導原則」における「国内避難民」に該当すると考えます。   同原則の原則4 第2項 には、「児童、妊娠中の母親、幼い児童を持つ母親、女性世帯主、障がいのある者および高齢者等一部の国内避難民は、自らの状態が必要とする保護および援助ならびに自らの特別の必要を考慮した待遇を受ける権利を有する。」とあります。 しかし、日本の政府が同原則を積極的に具体的施策の実施のなかに取り入れ、原子力災害による国内避難民に対して適切な対処をしているとはおよそいえない現状が続いています。  


6.人類史上、旧ソ連でチェルノブイリ原子力発電所の事故を人類は経験し、チェルノブイリのお母さんたちが声を上げ、数々の証言を残してくれました。 日本政府は,チェルノブイリ原発事故における被害者の社会的保護を教訓にしていません。その教訓を、何ら活かすことなく、福島をはじめ、日本の汚染された地域に住む子どもを含む人々は、今なお、無用の被曝を強いられています。すなわち、人の命や健康に直接関わる権利が3.11の震災以降、日本政府によって侵害され続けているのです。もし、ICRPがさらに放射線防護の基準を緩和し、年間1mSvの被ばく限度の数値までもを明示しなくなったとしたら、それは、ICRPの被ばく防護の権威と信用は失われます。   それどころか、被ばく防護を提唱するはずのICRPが、むしろ人々に被ばくを強要する人権侵害の大罪を犯すことになります。

7.私は、命や健康、そして日本に暮らす子どもたちの未来を守りたいのです。 放射能汚染地域から避難の権利、もしくは定期的な保養の権利を保障しなければ、日本が批准している「子どもの権利条約」第24条の「到達可能な最高水準の健康を享受する」権利も護ることができません。 ICRPは、被ばくに脆弱な子どもを特に守る厳しい基準を示して下さい。   被ばく防護と関係のない社会的事情、経済的負担を考慮するのではなく、被ばくに対してより脆弱な子ども、女性をより保護すべき厳格な基準を提示して下さい。

8.日本国憲法の前文には、「 全世界の国民が、ひとしく恐怖と欠乏から免れ、平和のうちに生存する権利を有することを確認する。」(平和的生存権)という規定があります。


10.放射線被曝から免れ健康を享受するということは、命を守るための原則的行為です。人の命や健康に直接関わる権利であり、最も大切で、普遍的な基本的人権だと思うのです。人の命よりも大切にされなければならないものはありますか?   ICRPが被ばく防護の基準を緩和させることによって、さらに無用な被ばくを人々に強いることになります。   ICRPの改定草案は、人々に無用な被ばくを強いる改悪にほかなりません。

11.全世界の皆さん、原子力災害の全ての被害者と避難者をどうか助けてください。 日本政府に対し,国際法を遵守し、国連の指導原則や勧告を尊重するように働きかけてください。 世界の皆さん、どうか助けて下さい。福島と東日本の人々、特に子どもたちを被曝から守ってください。

東日本大震災避難者の会 Thanks & Dream 代表




Internally displaced people due to Fukushima nuclear disaster