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Submitted by Thomas Berger, German Aerospace Center, DLR
   Commenting as an individual
Document Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space
 

Dear colleagues,


 The draft report ICRP Report on "Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space", ICRP ref 4819-7515-1888, 2012 July 03 is highly appreciated and gives a broad overview starting with Chapter 1. Radiation Environment in Space up to the issue of Operational Radiation Protection in Space as given in Chapter 7.


 


Nevertheless some comments should be taken into account for an updated version of this Draft Report.


 


Page 24: Fig 2.2 : It is not clear if the dose values are given for exposure in free space of after some shielding


 


Page 29: Fig 2.7: It is not possible for the reader to judge this figure due to the fact, that in the pdf file the symbols given in the legend are not equal to the symbols given in the graph.


 


Page 34: Fig.2.11 : The figure legend is wrong à the green line shows the data for the neutron spectra on ground and it should be written: 0 km (1030g/cm2) *770


See also: Goldhagen 2004 (Figure 5) with the Figure Caption: Cosmic-ray neutron spectra measured at different atmospheric depths (altitudes) on the ER-2 and on the ground at sea level. The 12 km spectrum is shown multiplied by 2.9 and the sea level spectrum by 770.


 


Fig 2.15: The figure could be updated with new calculations.


 


Chapter 3:


 


All the figures in Chapter 3 should be either updated – or newly drawn based on the original data from the relevant references. This applies especially for Figure 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 and 3.5, 3.8 and 3.9, 3.11 and 3.12.


 


Page 58: Line 1875: If in the text it is mentioned “It is, therefore, endorsed to follow the approach already applied by space agencies “ one should cite either the relevant NCRP Report or state which space agency uses this approach (of course all of them).


 


Chapter 4: 2109 – 2011 :


 


Further Review Paper for Instrumentation and Measurements onboard the ISS: T. Berger, Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS. Zeitschrift für Medizinische Physik, 18, (2008), 265-275


 


Table 4.1 and Table 4.2 could be updated with newer available publications as for example:


 


DB8:


A. E. Lishnevskii, M. I. Panasyuk, V. V. Benghin, V. M. Petrov, A. N. Volkov, O. Y. Nechayev, Variations of radiation environment onboard the ISS in the year 2008, Cosmic Res. 48 (3), 212–217 (2010).


 


PILLE:


S. Deme, I. Apáthy, T. Pázmándi, E. R. Benton, G. Reitz, Y. Akatov, On-board TLD measurements on Mir and ISS, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 120 (1–4), 438–441 (2006).


 


Liulin:


T. P. Dachev, J. Semkova, B. Tomov, Y. Matviichuk, P. Dimitrov, R. Koleva, S. Malchev, G. Reitz, G. Horneck, G. De Angelis, D.-P. Häder, V. Petrov, V. Shurshakov, V. Benghin, I. Chernykh, S. Drobyshev, N. G. Bankov, Space Shuttle drops down the SAA doses on ISS, Adv. Space Res. Advances in Space Research, Volume 47, Issue 11, 1 June 2011, Pages 2030-2038


 


TEPC:


A. S. Johnson, M. J. Golightly, T. Lin, E. J. Semones, T. Shelfer, M. D. Weyland, E. N. Zapp, A comparison of measurements and predictions for the April 15 and April 18, 2001 solar proton events, Adv. Space Res. 37 (9), 1678–1684 (2006).


 


ALTEA:


C. La Tessa, L. Di Fino, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, V. Zaconte, Estimate of the space station shielding thickness at a USLab site using ALTEA measurements and fragmentation cross sections, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267 (19), 3383–3387 (2009).


 


V. Zaconte, M. Casolino, C. De Santis, L. Di Fino, C. La Tessa, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, The radiation environment in the ISS-USLab measured by ALTEA: Spectra and relative nuclear abundances in the polar, equatorial and SAA regions, Adv. Space Res. 46 (6), 797-799 (2010).


 


V. Zaconte, M. Casolino, L. Di Fino, C. La Tessa, M. Larosa, L. Narici, P. Picozza, High energy radiation fluences in the ISS-USLab: Ion discrimination and particle abundances, Radiat. Meas. 45 (2), 168–172 (2010).


 


Fig 4.2 : The picture of the DOSTEL should be updated with a picture showing the real flight hardware instrument


 


Page 69: Direct Ion storage device


One should mention – taking into account the data given if Fig 4.3 – (right part), that the DIS system has almost no LET depencence – therefore making it a good solution for the heavy ion field in space.


 


Page 70: Bonner sphere spectrometer:


 


One should also think about mentioning the Russian BNT experiment for neutron measurements onboard the ISS.


 


V.I. Tret’yakov, I.G. Mitrofanov, Yu.I. Bobronitskii, A.V. Vostrukhin, N.A. Gunko, A.S. Kozyrev, A.V. Krylov, M.L. Litvak, M. Lopez-Alegria, V.I. Lyagushin, A.A. Konovalov, M.P. Korotkov, P.V. Mazurov, M.I. Mokrousov, A.V. Malakhov, I.O. Nuzhdin, S.N. Ponomareva, M.A. Pronin, A.B. Sanin, G.N. Timoshenko, T.M. Tomilina, M.V. Tyurin, A.I. Tsygan, V.N. Shvetsov, The first stage of the “BTN-Neutron” space experiment onboard the Russian segment of the International Space Station, Cosmic Research 48 (4) 285-299, (2010)


 


Chapter 4.3.3 Passive devices (Page 71 on)


One should at least include some primary references (Books, Review articles) for TLDs as well as for OSL detectors (McKeever, Yukihara) etc, since these systems are currently the most used passive radiation detectors onboard the ISS.


Fig 4.4: First of all due to the wrong symbols in the legend the figure is not readable.  Further on the Figure Caption is wrong: “Relative response of TLDs for various charged particles. The relative response (relative to 60Co- rays) of peak 5 from TLD-600 and TLD-700 versus mean LET (in water) in the detector is 2401 shown (Benton et al., 2000; Berger et al., 2006).” The data given in the graph comes from the Benton paper and only covers TLD-700 material.


 


Second of all – a lot of work has been done in the last 10 years for the determination of the LET efficiency of various TLD materials, also clearly showing, that the TL-efficiency not only depends on the LET but also on the ion species. See for example:


 


Review Article:


T. Berger, M. Hajek, TL-efficiency—Overview and experimental results over the years. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) 146 – 156


 


Article for a certain TLD Material:


 


Bilski, P., Berger, T., Hajek, M., and Reitz, G.  Comparison of the response of various TLDs to cosmic radiation and ion beams: Current results of the HAMLET project, Radiation Measurements, 46(12), 1680-1685 2011


 


M. Hajek, T. Berger, R. Bergmann, N. Vana, Y. Uchihori, N. Yasuda and H. Kitamura, LET dependence of thermoluminescent efficiency and peak height ratio of CaF2:Tm. Radiation Measurements 43 (2008) 1135 – 1139


 


Article concerning the comparison within the ICCHIBAN project:


 


P. Bilski, Response of various LiF thermoluminescent detectors to high energy ions – Results of the ICCHIBAN experiment Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 251, Issue 1, September 2006, Pages 121-126


Fig 4.5: The figure caption is wrong (See Figure 3 in Bilski 2011). It “only” shows the “Ratio of the relative TL efficiency of different groups of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors to the mean value for a given ion exposure” – so simulating a subset of the space radiation data.


 


Fig 4.6 has to be updated – the quality is very poor and the symbols do not match the graphs.


 


Page 74: Combined detector systems


 


There is no Reference given for the usage of a combination of TLD and PNTD – since these systems have been used together onboard the ISS for the last 15 years at least some references should be added.


 


I. Jadrnícková, R. Tateyama, N. Yasuda, H. Kawashima, M. Kurano, Y. Uchihori, H. Kitamura ,Yu. Akatov, V. Shurshakov, I. Kobayashi, H. Ohguchi, Y. Koguchi, F. Spurny; Variation of absorbed doses onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as measured with passive detectors, Radiation Measurements 44, 901–904 (2009).


 


M. Hajek, T. Berger, N. Vana, M. Fugger, J. K. Pálfalvi, J. Szabó, I. Eördögh, Y. A. Akatov, V. V. Arkhangelsky, V. A. Shurshakov, Convolution of TLD and SSNTD measurements during the BRADOS-1 experiment onboard ISS (2001), Radiat. Meas. 43 (7), 1231–1236 (2008).


 


D. Zhou, E. Semones, R. Gaza, S. Johnson, N. Zapp, K. Lee, T. George, Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters, Adv. Space Res. 43 (8), 1212–1219 (2009).


 


Fig 5:10: Please update the figure – due to the wrong symbols one can not understand it.


 


Chapter 5.6 Lunar and Mars Surface


 


There are more up to data publications showing the radiation environment on the Moon and on the Martian Surface.


 


 


R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.F. Badavi, G. De Angelis A characterization of the moon radiation environment for radiation analysis Original Advances in Space Research, Volume 37, Issue 9, 2006, Pages 1749-1758


G. De Angelis, F.F. Badavi, J.M. Clem, S.R. Blattnig, M.S. Clowdsley, J.E. Nealy, R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson Modeling of the Lunar Radiation Environment Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements, Volume 166, April 2007, Pages 169-183

Reitz, G., Berger, T., Matthiae, D., Radiation Exposure in the Moon Environment. Planetary and Space Science, (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2012.07.014


 


Page 103: Line 3475: Further publication to be added : D. Zhou, E. Semones, D. O’Sullivan, N. Zapp, M. Weyland, G. Reitz, T. Berger, E. R. Benton, Radiation measured for MATROSHKA-1 experiment with passive dosimeters, Acta Astronaut. 66 (1-2), 301-308 (2010).


There are also more publications available for the MATROSHKA-R Phantom


 


Page 116:


 


Fig 15: Reference could be updated to


Thomas Berger, Paweł Bilski, Michael Hajek, Monika Puchalskaand Günther Reitz


The MATROSHKA Experiment: Results and Comparison from EVA (MTR-1) and IVA (MTR-2A/2B) Exposure, Radiation Research (2012) currently under review


 


Fig 6.18 – change Matthä, 2012 to Matthiä 2012


 


Chapter 7: Operational


 


One could cite Straube et al.:


 


U. Straube, T. Berger, G. Reitz, R. Facius, C. Fuglesang, T. Reiter, V. Damann, M. Tognini,: Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations, Acta Astronautica 66 (2010) 963 - 973