Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides Part 2

Draft document: Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides Part 2
Submitted by VP SINGH, Health Physics Section, Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4
Commenting as an individual

The document is written in very good order and various information have been incoporated in the document. However further more details may please be added.


A) The typical detection limits are provided for Co-58 and Co-60 without references. However the whole body counters are of various geometry, make, detectors and details. So please further information may please be added.

B) Retention time with reference of all the discussed radio-nuclides may please be given in detail in each section separately with graph for easy tracking of the information. Or compiled special section may be provided.

C) Particle size may please be included (if possible) for the discussed of the nuclides and default values may also be given for utilities.


1. Tritium:

1.1 Page No. 20 (Table-1): Singh, V. P. et al., Estimation of Biological Half-Life of Tritium in Coastal Region of India”, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 142(2-4), 153-159 (2010) may please be included in the Table-1 for 202 cases in low tritium uptake in PHWR nuclear power plant operation. The results of this study are very useful for practical results for low tritium uptake for other studies.

1.2 Seasonal variation of biological half-life has been investigated which requires further consideration in dose estimation. Therefore it may be highlighted for countries similar to India for data base preparation and application in future.

1.3  Accidental management of tritium uptake for large number of cases may please be included in the report which will be available to operator group of Tritium handling facilities. Recently an article has been published to handle rapidly large number of tritium exposure cases as Singh, V. P., Quick Management of Accidental Tritium Exposed Cases”, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., Vol. 150, No.4, pp.508-515 (2012). The inclusion of the information will be very useful as worldwide various facilities are producing and handling tritium and near future fusion reactor will use tritium as a fuel.

1.4  Skin absorption and inhalation factors for tritium may please be included for reference as well as choosing the appropriate values.

2. Cobalt:

2.1  Size of the particle may be included for consideration of dose coefficient parameters for radiation protection management.

2.2  The half-life values of Co-60, Type and other details may please be written in one Table for easy tracking, comparison and references.

2.3  Retention time of the Co-60 activity may be given in tabulated form.

2.4  Accidental management of Cobalt intake may please be included.

3.  Zirconium:

3.1  The retention time of Zirconium may please be included in the form of Table to compare and analysis for application which will be very useful for Health Physicist at nuclear power plants.  Zirconium and Niobium are vital nuclides in NPPs as these nuclides are expected to be present during handling of irradiated fuel because of comparatively large yield.  

4. Niobium:

4.1  The retention time of Niobium may please be included in the form of Table to compare and analysis for application.   


Health Physicist